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Symposium Invited Speakers

Symposium 1: Development and Characterization of Multifunctional Materials

Meisha L. Shofner, Georgia Institute of Technology
Presentation Title: Enabling Nanoparticle Networking in Semi-Crystalline Polymer Matrices
Wednesday, September 19, 2012
9:50 AM – 10:30 AM

Abstract: Among the physical and chemical attributes of the nanocomposite components and their interactions that contribute to the ultimate material properties, nanoparticle arrangement in the matrix is a key contributing factor which has been targeted through materials choices and processing strategies in numerous previous studies. Often, the desired nanocomposite morphology contains individually dispersed and distributed nanoparticles. In this research, a phase segregated morphology containing nanoparticle networks was studied. A model nanocomposite system composed of calcium phosphate nanoparticles and a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) matrix was produced to understand how polymer crystallization and crystal structure can facilitate the formation of a phase segregated morphology containing nanoparticle networks. The nanocomposites were characterized to establish the effects of component interactions on the polymer structure. The results of this research suggest that when the nanocomposite components are not strongly interacting, polymer crystallization may be used as a forced assembly method for nanoparticle networks.

Biography: Dr. Meisha L. Shofner is an Assistant Professor in the School of Materials Science and Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology, joining the faculty following post-doctoral training at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. She received her B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from The University of Texas at Austin and her Ph.D. in Materials Science from Rice University. Prior to beginning graduate school, she was employed as a design engineer at FMC in the Subsea Engineering Division, working at two plant locations (Houston, Texas and the Republic of Singapore), and she is a registered Professional Engineer in Georgia. Dr. Shofner currently serves as the secretary of the TMS Composite Materials Committee and as a member of ASME's Nanoengineering for Energy and Sustainability Steering Committee. At Georgia Institute of Technology, Dr. Shofner's research group is concerned with structure-property relationships in polymer nanocomposite materials and with producing structural hierarchy in these materials for structural and functional applications. This research has been recognized by the Ralph E. Powe Junior Faculty Enhancement Award from Oak Ridge Associate Universities and the Solvay Advanced Polymers Young Faculty Award.

Satish Kumar, Georgia Institute of Technology
Presentation Title: Recent Developments in Polymer/Carbon Nanotube Composite Films and Fibers
Wednesday, September 19, 2012
2:00 PM – 2:40 PM

Abstract: Polymer/carbon nanotube composite films and fibers have been processed using polymers such as polyacrylonitrile(PAN), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(ether ether ketone) (PEK) and biopolymers such as DNA, silk, and cellulose. Single wall carbon nanotubes, multi wall carbon nanotubes, as well as vapor grown carbon nano fibers have been used in these studies. Composite films have been processed that contain up to 90% carbon nanotubes and continuous fibers have been processed that contain up to 30 wt% carbon nanotubes. Carbon fibers from PAN/CNT precursors containing 1 wt% CNT have been processed that show 50% improvement in tensile modulus and strength as compared to the fibers containing no CNTs. Carbon nanotubes act as a template for polymer orientation and nucleating agent for polymer crystallization. Broader implications of this observation in polymer and fiber processing are just beginning to be realized. Polymer/CNT films and fibers are also being evaluated for their thermal and electrical conductivity, as well as for their energy storage capacity as electrochemical supercapacitor electrode.

Biography: Satish Kumar, Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology. He received his Ph.D. degree from Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, India and obtained his post-doctoral experience in Polymer Science and Engineering under the tutelage of Professor R. S. Stein at University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He conducted research as a foreign collaborator at C.E.N.G., Grenoble France. During 1984-89, he was associated with the Polymer Branch at the Air Force Research Laboratory, WPAFB OH as an onsite contractor through Universal Energy Systems and subsequently through University of Dayton Research Institute. He joined Georgia Institute of Technology in 1989. His current research and teaching interests are in the areas of structure, processing, and properties of polymers, fibers, and composites with an emphasis on polymer-carbon nanotube nanocomposites. He has conducted fiber processing and structure-property studies on a broad range of polymers including synthetic and natural polymers, as well as carbon fibers. Areas of research interest also include carbon nanotubes ability to nucleate polymer crystallization as well as its ability to template polymer orientation. He is also conducting research on carbon based electrochemical supercapacitors, with the objective of enhancing their energy density.

Nakhiah Goulbourne, University of Michigan
Presentation Title: Active Microvascular Composites: Shape Memory Polymers
Friday, September 21, 2012
10:00 AM – 10:40 AM

Abstract: In recent years, supramolecular chemistry has been utilized to tune the intermolecular interactions of soft polymers. Of significant interest, is the coupling of distinct physical fields with a mechanical response particularly large deformations and conformational changes. Soft shape memory polymers (SMPs) are active materials that undergo very large deformations to form different shapes in response to various external stimuli. Most notably, the 'memory' function enables the material to go from a temporary shape to a recalled original shape, recovering nearly 100% of the deformation. To date both chemically cross-linked and physically crosslinked polymer systems have been synthesized. Chemically crosslinked polymers consisting of a combination of two networks, involving a supramolecular crosslink and a reversible chemical crosslink, provide a mechanism to change molecular conformation and shape with the delivery of ions, pH change, or light in a reversible fashion. Biological systems have highly vascularized networks that deliver internal triggers to activate a variety of processes. This observation has been leveraged to date to investigate synthetic interpenetrating vascular channels for self-healing and active cooling in passive polymers. We introduce a class of novel active materials that use vascular networks containing physically or chemically functionalized fluids to enable polymer activation i.e. shape change. The vascular networks can be used to both heat and cool the polymer during a shape memory cycle. We have demonstrated internal activation of shape memory polymers by means of an interpenetrating network. This work illustrates the potential of vascular networks to revolutionize the area of active materials by leveraging molecular scale activity to the macroscale. An integrated mechanism via an embedded vascular network can functionalize and selectively activate stimuli responsive polymers. Efforts to model shape memory behavior have taken a macroscopic continuum approach to date. In this talk, a new physics-based approach is combined with molecular dynamics simulations to describe polymer behavior in the rubbery regime. We show that the model is able to capture finite deformation behavior with a simple analytical form and only three parameters.

Biography: Dr. Nakhiah Goulbourne has been an Assistant Professor at the University of Michigan since 2009. Previously, she was a faculty member at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Dr. Goulbourne is the director of the Soft Materials Research Lab at the Univeristy of Michigan. Her group has specific focus on the mechanics of soft polymers, biological membranes, and hybrid composites with the ultimate goal of providing feedback for material synthesis through early integration of science and engineering. She has made important contributions in the area of electroactive polymers through her work on dielectric elastomers, ionic polymer transducers, and more recently shape memory polymer composites. She has authored 15 journal publications, over 25 conference papers and a book chapter. She has garnered significant support for her research, which includes receiving the NSF CAREER award in 2008. She has a Bachelor's degree in Physics from Middlebury College and received her M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the Pennsylvania State University.

Symposium 2: Mechanics and Behavior of Active Materials

Jacob L. Jones, University of Florida
Presentation Title: Diffraction of Ferroelectrics During Electric Field Application: Comprehensive Results of Lattice Strain, Domain Wall and Interphase Boundary Motion in Traditional and Emerging Compositions
Wednesday, September 19, 2012
2:00 PM – 2:40 PM

Abstract: In situ X-ray and neutron scattering measurements have seen recent pervasive application in the field of ferroelectrics. This is largely attributed to the development of new diffraction instruments, data acquisition electronics, and ancillary equipment at scattering facilities throughout the world. In this talk, we review recent experimental results using these approaches to study domain wall and lattice responses during application of weak electric fields similar to those applied during measurement of property coefficients. In all cases, direct measurements of the average contribution from the lattice (e.g., piezoelectric) and the motion of intragranular interfaces (e.g., domain walls, phase boundaries) are used to interpret the electromechanical coupling behaviour under high fields (strain-field hysteresis) and weak fields (property coefficients). It is first observed that the electric-field-induced lattice strain in donormodified lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is dominated by domain wall motion contributions, suppressing piezoelectric distortions of the lattice. In contrast, the response of acceptor-modified PZT and tetragonal BaTiO3 under similar conditions is not as strongly dominated by domain walls. The lead-free composition Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3- x(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 is shown to exhibit significantly enhanced domain wall motion contributions at compositions approaching the morphotropic phase boundary (i.e., 0.5), correlating with the very high d33 of 620 pC/N. The high-temperature piezoelectric ceramic 0.36PbTiO3- 0.64BiScO3 (BS-64PT) also exhibits significant domain wall motion, contributing to the high d33 of 460 pC/N. In BS-64PT, we also demonstrate several additional structure-property relationships including an explanation for the origin of the field-amplitude- and frequency-dependence of the property coefficients and characterization of deaging, or a progressive movement of the average degree of domain alignment backwards during the property measurements. Experiments were completed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and Advanced Photon Source, the Spallation Neutron Source at ORNL, and OPAL at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation. Support from the National Science Foundation under award numbers DMR-0746902 and OISE-0755170 and the U.S. Department of the Army under W911NF-09-1-0435 are gratefully acknowledged.

Biography: Jacob Jones is an Associate Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Florida with research interests in ferroelectric and piezoelectric ceramics, mechanical behavior of materials, and crystallography. He has published over 70 papers on these topics since 2004 and his research has been supported by the National Science Foundation, the Army Research Office and various industrial and other laboratory sponsors. He has received numerous research awards including the National Science Foundation CAREER award (2007), a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (2009), the IEEE Ferroelectrics Young Investigator Award (2011), the 2010 Edward C. Henry "Best Paper" award from the Electronics Division of the American Ceramic Society. At the University of Florida, he has been recognized through the prestigious Pramod Khargonekar Award (2012), the HHMI Science for Life Distinguished Mentor Award (2012), and three MSE Faculty Excellence Awards (2010, 2011, 2012). Jones' research group is comprised of postdoctoral research associates and graduate and undergraduate students. The group is international, interdisciplinary, and undertakes both fundamental science and applied engineering problems.

Sergei V. Kalinin, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Presentation Title: Emergent SPM Modes and Their Application to Energy and Memory Materials
Wednesday, September 19, 2012
4:00 PM – 4:40 PM

Abstract: Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) has emerged as a powerful tool to characterize piezoelectric, ferroelectric and multiferroic materials on the nanometer level. Much of the driving force for the broad adoption of PFM has been the intense research into piezoelectric properties of thin films, nanoparticles, and nanowires of materials as dissimilar as perovskites, nitrides, and polymers. Recently, electromechanical detection was also demonstrated in imaging ionic materials for energy conversion and storage and non-volatile memory applications, a technique referred to as electrochemical Strain Microscopy (ESM). Recent recognition of limitations of singlefrequency PFM and ESM, notably topography-related cross-talk, has led to development of novel solutions such as band-excitation (BE) methods. In parallel, the need for quantitative probing of polarization dynamics has led to emergence of complex time- and voltage spectroscopies, often based on acquisition and analysis of multidimensional data sets. In this perspective, we discuss the recent developments in multidimensional PFM, and offer several examples of spectroscopic techniques that provide new insight into polarization dynamics in ferroelectrics and multiferroics. We further discuss potential extension of PFM/ESM for probing ionic phenomena in energy generation and storage materials and devices, including reversible ionic dynamics in solid-oxide fuel cell materials and batteries and irreversible phenomena in Li-ion electrolytes and LAO-STO systems. Notably, many of the bias phenomena can be observed in "classical" perovskites, and guidelines for differentiating piezoelectric and electrochemical phenomena are discussed for materials such as TiO2 and SrTiO3. Finally, future developments based on in-situ electron microscopy combined with PFM/ESM are discussed. Research supported (SVK) by the U.S. Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division and partially performed at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (SVK), a DOE-BES user facility.

Biography: Sergei V. Kalinin is currently a senior research staff member at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and co-theme leader for scanning probe microscopy at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences at ORNL, following an Eugene P. Wigner fellow appointment at ORNL (2002–2004). He is also an adjunct professor at Pennsylvania State University and adjunct associate professor at the Department of Materials Sciences and Engineering at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. His research is focused on local bias-induced phase transitions and electrochemical transformation in ferroelectric, ionic, and macromolecular systems. The key element of his work is scanning probe microscopy (SPM) of electromechanical and transport phenomena, with specific emphasis on multidimensional and artificialintelligence– assisted SPM methods. Several of his developments have been adopted and licensed by the SPM industry. Kalinin received his PhD degree in materials science at the University of Pennsylvania in 2002. During his academic career, he has been the recipient of the Burton Medal of American Microscopy Society (2010), the IEEETUFFC Young Investigator Award (2010), the Robert L. Coble (2009) and Ross Coffin Purdy (2003) Awards of American Ceramics Society, AVS Peter Mark Memorial Award (2008), and 2 R&D100 awards (2010 and 2008), as well as the Wigner Fellowship of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. He is the author of more than 180 scientific papers and 14 patents and patent disclosures on different aspects of SPM and ferroelectric materials applications. He has organized a series of international workshops on piezoresponse force microscopy and SPM for energy storage materials.

Christoph Keplinger, Harvard University
Presentation Title: Dielectric Elastomers for Giant Voltage-Induced Deformation of Actuation and Renewable Energy Harvesting
Friday, September 21, 2012
9:00 AM – 9:40 PM

Abstract: Dielectric elastomer actuators are developed for a wide range of applications, including artificial muscles, electrically deformable lenses for tunable optics and Braille displays. Due to superior or complementary properties compared to parallel technologies, dielectric elastomer generators show promise for harvesting of mechanical energy from small to large scales. The first part of the presented work is focused on the most conspicuous feature of dielectric elastomer actuators: giant voltage-induced deformation of actuation. The deformation of elastic membranes induced by voltage is limited to about 60% in terms of area strain by an electromechanical instability normally leading to electric failure of the device. Two methods to exceed this limit are presented: Firstly, electrode free dielectric elastomer actuators are introduced. They are operated with electrical charges, which are sprayed onto the elastomer surface originating from a high voltage corona discharge. This technique avoids the electromechanical instability. Experimental evidence of giant voltage-induced deformation is provided. The absence of electrodes allows for transparent designs and applications in optics, which is demonstrated with an electrically tunable lens. Secondly, a principle is introduced that allows for exceeding the deformation limits of the electromechanical instability with conventional voltage controlled actuators based on off-the-shelf materials. The developed principle of operation allows for safely harnessing electromechanical instabilities. With a commercially available acrylic elastomer, voltage-induced expansion of area by 1692% is demonstrated, well beyond the largest value reported in the literature. The second part of the presented work is focused on dielectric elastomer generators. One of the most essential and urgent challenges for research is to identify or design materials with ideally suited properties. Therefore a theoretical description of dielectric elastomer generators is established that allows for accurately assessing the aptitude of different materials for energy harvesting applications. In a comparison of a commonly used elastomer with natural rubber, the cheap, abundant and sustainable rubber is revealed to have favorable properties, especially for energy harvesting applications where the maximum strain of operation is limited due to durability considerations. Natural rubber is subject to further analysis with an experimental setup that is developed to measure the specific electrical energy generated per cycle, the mechanical to electrical energy conversion efficiency and the specific average power of different materials. In a comparison between a commonly used acrylic elastomer (3Mâ„¢ VHBâ„¢ 4910) and a commercially available natural rubber membrane (Zrunekâ„¢ZruElastâ„¢A1040), the natural rubber outperforms the acrylic membrane with respect to each monitored figure of merit.

Biography: Christoph Keplinger is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at Harvard University, where he is a member of the Suo and Whitesides Research Groups. His current research interests include renewable energies, sustainability, soft active materials (particularly dielectric elastomer actuators and generators) and soft robots. Dr. Keplinger earned his Ph.D. degree in Physics from the Johannes Kepler University of Linz in the Department of Soft Matter Physics, headed by Prof. Siegfried. His awards include the Award of Excellence (2011) and the Award for Outstanding Young Scientists (2011) both from Austrian government agencies and the Wilhelm Macke Award (2009) from the Wilhelm Macke Foundation.

Xuanhe Zhao, Duke University
Presentation Title: Bioinspired Electroactive Skin
Friday, September 21, 2012
4:00 PM – 4:40 PM

Abstract: In this talk, we will present novel polymer skins (or coatings) that can dynamically change their morphology under applied electrical voltages. The working mechanism for the polymer skins is a new type of voltage-induced instability recently discovered in our group. Subject to an electric voltage, a substrate-bonded polymer film initially remains flat and smooth. Once the voltage reaches a critical value, regions of the polymer surface locally fold against themselves, giving a variety of patterns including creases, craters and lines. The dynamic interactions of the patterns with environment can lead to novel applications such as antifouling, transfer printing and camouflage. Inspirations from biological systems are particularly helpful in studying the electroactive skins and their applications, and thus will be shared with the audience.

Biography: Xuanhe Zhao received his PhD in Mechanical Engineering from Harvard University in 2009, MS in Materials Engineering from University of British Columbia in 2006, and BE in Electrical Engineering from Tianjin University in 2003. Upon finishing a postdoctoral training in Biomedical Engineering at Harvard, in 2010, Zhao joined the faculty of Duke University, and established the Soft Active Materials Laboratory (SAMs Lab). Prof. Zhao's research is motivated by new materials and phenomena emerging on the interface between engineering and biology.

Symposium 3: Modeling, Simulation and Control of Adaptive Systems

Francesco Butera, SAES Getters SpA
Presentation Title: Recent Development of Shape Memory Alloys and Engineering Actuator Applications
Wednesday, September 19, 2012
4:00 PM – 4:40 PM

Abstract: Shape Memory Alloys present a mature technology serving a lot of industrial applications, especially in the automotive, consumer electronics, household appliances and building automation sectors. Many products show the intrinsic advantages of this smart material, such as miniaturization, simplification, high performance, structural integration and cost reduction. In the last 2 years industrial applications have increased dramatically and nowadays engineers are starting to design using this technology as a good alternative as controllable actuators. In this review several commercial products will be presented. For further expanding the market of the engineering products, the main challenges for the near future is the continuous improvement of the alloys; especially high temperature deformable alloys are needed to be developed for future micro-actuators. Recent development of such high temperature alloys will be also reviewed.

Biography: Francesco Butera has a degree in electronics engineering at the University of Palermo, specializing in microelectronics at IRST in Trento. Until 2005 he was responsible for the Mechatronics group at Fiat Research Centre. During that period he carried out activities on development of active components based on smart materials for automotive and industrial applications. In 2006 he was in charge of Saes Getters as project manager of the Shape Memory Alloys business area. His responsibility was related to the industrialization of Shape Memory Alloys and the product development phase from research to industrial component. Since 2008 he has been business manager of the SMA business unit for industrial applications in the SAES Getters Group and since 2011 he has been chief commercial officer of Actuator Solutions GmbH, a joint venture between SAES and Alfmeier, aiming at SMA devices development and production for high volume applications. In the last 5 years he filed more than 30 patents in the area of components based on smart materials. He attends several international conferences and symposia on shape memory alloys and actuators, and is an invited speaker and chair at the SMST – Shape Memory and Superelastic Technology conference.

Timothy J. White, Air Force Research Laboratory
Presentation Title: Wireless Mechanical Adaptivity: Photomechanical Effects
in Azobenzene-Functionalized Polymeric Materials
Thursday, September 20, 2012
2:25 PM – 3:05 PM

Abstract: Employing light to direct functional responses in photoresponsive polymeric materials and composites is potentially advantageous as it is wireless and extremely rapid. Furthermore, the intensity, phase, and polarization of light can be easily modulated into complex spatial patterns with holography (intensity or polarization) or masking (intensity or phase). Deriving from these foundational properties of light, photoresponsive macromolecular systems exhibit exceptional potential to yield rapid and highly engineered macroscopic as well as spatially selectable mechanically adaptive responses useful as soft actuators or topographical surfaces in aerospace, automotive, and biomedical applications. This talk will discuss our recent work generating both shape fixing (shape memory) and shape restoring (elastic) responses in a variety of photoresponsive polymeric materials. Particular emphasis will be placed on the generation of topographical features in liquid crystalline polymer networks.

Biography: Timothy J. White received a B.A. in Chemistry in 2002 from Central College and a Ph.D. in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering in 2006 from the University of Iowa. He currently is a research engineer for the U.S. Air Force at the Air Force Reasearch Laboratory in the Materials and Manufacturing Directorate. His research currently focuses on photoresponsive materials, including cholesteric liquid crystals and liquid crystal polymers.

Clayton G. Webster, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Presentation Title: Adaptive Sparse Grid Generalized Stochastic Collocation
Methods for UQ of High-Dimensional Predictive Simulations
Friday, September 21, 2012
9:20 AM – 10:00 AM

Abstract: Our modern treatment of predicting the behavior of physical and engineering problems relies on mathematical modeling followed by computer simulation. The modeling process may describe the solution in terms of high dimensional spaces, particularly in the case when the input data (coefficients, forcing terms, boundary conditions, geometry, etc) are affected by a large amount of uncertainty. Therefore, the goal of the mathematical and computational analysis becomes the prediction of statistical moments (mean value, variance, covariance, etc.) or even the whole probability distribution of some responses of the system (quantities of physical interest), given the probability distribution of the input random data. For higher accuracy, the computer simulation must increase the number of random variables (stochastic dimensions), and expend more effort approximating the quantity of interest within each individual dimension. The resulting explosion in computational effort is a symptom of the curse of dimensionality. Adaptive sparse grid generalized stochastic collocation (gSC) techniques yield non-intrusive methods to discretize and approximate these higher dimensional problems with a feasible amount of unknowns leading to usable methods. It is the aim of this talk to survey the fundamentals and analysis of an adaptive sparse grid (gSC) method utilizing both global polynomial approximations and local multi-resolution wavelet decompositions. We will present both a priori and a posteriori approaches to adapt the anisotropy of the sparse grids to applications of both linear and nonlinear stochastic PDEs. Rigorously derived error estimates, for the fully discrete problem, will be described and used to compare the efficiency of the method with several other techniques. Numerical examples illustrate the theoretical results and are used to show that, for moderately large dimensional problems, the adaptive sparse grid gSC approach is extremely efficient and superior to all examined methods, including Monte Carlo.

Biography: Clayton Webster is a mathematician at the level of Senior Research Scientist at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. He is also jointly appointed in the Department of Computational Science at Florida State University. Previously, Dr. Webster was the Manager of quantitative Analysis at NextEra Energy Resources, Power Trading LLC. Before that, he was awarded the John von Neumann Fellowship by the Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories. Clayton currently leads the Uncertainty quantification effort at ORNL in the Computer Science and Mathematics Division and is also affiliated with the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). He and his collaborators have published several of the most cited numerical analysis papers in the field of uncertainty quantification. Clayton currently serves on the editorial board of both the International Journal for Uncertainty quantification and the SIAM Journal on Uncertainty quantification.

Symposium 4: Integrated System Design and Implementation

Alan L. Browne, GMR&D
Presentation Title: A Lightweight Thermal Energy Recovery System Based on
Shape Memory Alloys: A DOE ARPA-E Initiative
Friday, September 21, 2012
10:00 AM – 10:40 AM

Abstract: Over 60% of energy that is generated is lost as waste heat with close to 90% of this waste heat being classified as low grade being at temperatures less than 200ºC. As an example of the magnitude of this energy loss, automobiles consume nearly 13 million barrels of oil daily in the U.S. alone with nearly 50% of the fuel energy being expelled as waste heat in the exhaust and coolant streams. Many technologies such as thermoelectric have been proposed as means for harvesting this lost thermal energy. Among them, that of SMA heat engines, appears to be a strong candidate for converting low grade thermal output to useful mechanical work given that its operating temperature range matches that of low grade waste heat. Unfortunately, though proposed initially in the late 1960's and the subject of significant development work in the 1970's, significant technical roadblocks have existed preventing this technology from moving from a scientific curiosity to a practical reality. This paper/presentation provides an overview of work performed on SMA heat engines under the US DOE ARPA-E initiative. It begins with a review of the previous art, covers the identified technical roadblocks to past advancement, presents the solution path taken to remove these roadblocks, and describes significant breakthroughs made during the just completed two year contract. The presentation concludes with details of the current functioning prototype, which, being able to operate in air as well as fluids, dramatically expands the operational envelop and makes significant strides towards the ultimate goal of commercial viability. As indicated, included in this presentation will be details of our specific approach and advances that have been achieved. On a higher level, in this project we developed a shape memory alloy (SMA) heat engine capable of providing over 1 W/g of SMA, which is a significant advancement over the state of the art in solid-state thermal energy recovery systems (e.g. a 10 times improvement over thermoelectrics). It is felt that our heat engine design improves on past designs through better understanding of material behavior, the use of system and material analytical models, the use of recent and continuing improvements in narrow hysteresis SMA, and the design of an innovative energy conversion element that improves convective heat transfer to increase operating frequency. In terms of specifics, a rotary thermal engine was developed based on heating SMA looped around pulleys. SMA heat engines convert thermal energy directly into mechanical work. The alloy functions as a solid-state energy conversion element by recovering strain on the order of 4% through a reversible thermal phase transformation. Thermal contraction of the SMA creates torque from which power can be extracted by a generator. Of importance, application is in no way limited to the capture of automotive waste heat. This technology can be spun off to other sectors, harvesting thermal energy from any sources, whether commercial, residential, or environmental, where small temperature differences exist, even down to 10 to 20º C and is sufficiently simple in execution to be retrofitted readily to existing waste heat sources.

Biography: Dr. Browne received his A.B. degree magna cum laude from Harvard College in 1966 and a PhD degree in Mechanical Engineering from Northwestern University in 1971. He has been employed as a research engineer at GM R&D for 41years and has over 100 technical publications and 164 issued US Patents. He currently is a GM Technical Fellow and for the most recent 10 years his research efforts have been focused primarily on developing automotive applications of smart materials such as MR fluids, SMA's, SMP's, and EAP's. Most recently he has just finished serving for two years as the Principal Investigator on a just completed ARPA-E contract focused on developing a green technology, specifically a Shape Memory Alloy based Waste Heat Recovery System. His professional society involvement includes membership in ASTM, SAE, ASME (Fellow), and the American Society of Composites (Fellow).


Gregory J. Hiemenz, Techno-Sciences Inc.
Presentation Title: Adaptive MR Seat Suspensions for Enhanced Occupant
Thursday, September 20, 2012
3:25 PM – 4:10 PM

Abstract: The use of magnetorheological (MR) dampers in a semi-active seat suspension system has been explored through numerous collaborative programs between Techno-Sciences, Inc. and the University of Maryland. Such efforts include vibration isolating and adaptive crash attenuating seats for rotorcraft, adaptive shock attenuating seats for IED blast protection in military ground vehicles, and adaptive mitigation of repetitive shock for high speed watercraft. In this presentation, challenges in designing such systems will be discussed and novel solutions are presented. In addition, this presentation will highlight key results and successes resulting from these collaborative efforts, which include 90% attenuation of helicopter floor vibration, unparalleled IED blast protection, and 50% improvement in repetitive shock protection over conventional passive seat suspensions.

Biography: Dr. Gregory J. Hiemenz is the Vice President of the Advanced Technology Division at Techno-Sciences Inc. He graduated Summa Cum Laude with a Bachelor's in Mechanical Engineering at Catholic University of America, and subsequently earned his Master's in Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland (UMD) under a Graduate School Fellowship. He then joined Northrop Grumman Oceanic & Naval Systems Division, where he served as a technical specialist in the areas of structural dynamics, shock and vibration analysis, and systems integration for major U.S. Navy programs including the Advanced Seal Delivery System, the CVNX Main Turbine Generator, and a myriad of successful special defense projects. Dr. Hiemenz then returned to UMD while concurrently working with Techno-Sciences Inc. and completed his Ph.D. in Aerospace Engineering. His studies concentrated on structural dynamics, shock and vibration mitigation, semi-active control, and magnetorheological fluid technology. Because of his research successes, he was awarded a Vertical Flight Foundation scholarship from AHS and the AIAA Hal Andrews Young Engineer of the Year Award in 2008. Dr. Hiemenz is currently serving as Principal Investigator on several development programs focusing on protecting seated occupants from extreme shock and vibration environments and is an expert in occupant protection. He is a member of AHS, AIAA, and ASME.

Eric J. Ruggiero, GE Global Research
Presentation Title: The Potential Role of Smart Structures in Gas Turbines
Friday, September 21, 2012
3:00 PM – 3:40 PM

Abstract: Gas turbines fly us from point A to point B, and are used to generate power for billions of people around the world. The environment inside a gas turbine is more than a challenging one – high pressures, high temperatures, and large transients between the rotor and stator challenge the limits of materials, controllers, and the like to push the overall gas turbine efficiency beyond the 60% mark. In this presentation, the nuances of gas turbine operation and design will be presented, and the potential role of smart materials introduced.

Biography: Dr. Eric Ruggiero received his Ph.D. from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in Mechanical Engineering in 2005 from the Center for Intelligent Material Systems and Structures and is currently a Lab Manager at GE Global Research in the Turbine Heat Transfer Technologies Laboratory. In his current role, Dr. Ruggiero leads global teams on the innovation, design, test, and validation of advanced cooling schemes for gas turbines at GE Aviation and GE Energy. In his prior role, he led a multi-million dollar development effort for GE in the area of advanced seals. Dr. Ruggiero is a previous National Science Foundation graduate research fellow. He has published over 30 peer-reviewed manuscripts, filed 14 patent applications, and has received numerous awards from AIAA and ASME.

Symposium 5: Structural Health Monitoring

Kishor Mehta, National Science Foundation
Presentation Title: Structural Health Monitoring: Current and Future
Wednesday, September 19, 2012
11:00 PM – 11:40 PM

Abstract: The National Science Foundation program in Hazard Mitigation and Structural Engineering (HMSE) in the Directorate of Engineering encompasses the research component of structural health monitoring for buildings and structures. Development of sensors and sensor systems and development of structural materials are in different programs; however monitoring of structural health and making decisions on repair or demolition based on the recorded data are part of HMSE. There are several facets of structural health monitoring including state of structure after a damaging event (e.g. earthquake or windstorm), potential damage to a structure due to material deterioration (e.g. corrosion), fatigue damage under service loading, or progression of damage over a period of time due to a combination of factors. There are research projects in progress or recently completed that are funded by the NSF. Looking in to the future, continuous monitoring of structural health for important and critical buildings and structures will be part of structural engineering. Continuous monitoring of structural health will permit provisions of structural control, risk assessment, and prognosis of life of buildings and structures. Major research and development needs for structural health monitoring are robust sensors that survive hostile environments, sensors and recording systems that provide credible data, algorithms that coalesce the data in the meaningful results, and selection of range of actions that needs to be pursued for resiliency and sustainability of structures. A key element in structural engineering is the economics. It is possible to design a structure robust enough to resist all service loads and most extreme loads. However, if the designs and/or repairs are not cost effective, society is not willing to accept them. Structural engineering and economics (or cost-effectiveness) go hand-in-hand. We design all structures to be cost effective consistent with their reliability. In order to implement results of new research or new structural system, it is necessary to show cost-effectiveness of the system. Structural health monitoring is a tool that can assist in making structures resilient and sustainable in a cost-effective manner.

Biography: Kishor Mehta received his B.S. and M.S. degrees from the University of Michigan and Ph.D. in Civil Engineering from the University of Texas at Austin. He joined the National Science Foundation as Director for Hazard Mitigation and Structural Engineering (HMSE) Program within the Division of Civil, Mechanical and Manufacturing Innovation (CMMI) in the Engineering Directorate in September 2011. Prior to that date he was P.W. Horn Professor of Civil Engineering and former Director of the Wind Science Engineering (WISE) Research Center at Texas Tech University. He is a Member of the National Academy of Engineering (2004) and Distinguished Member of ASCE (2002). He chaired the wind load subcommittee of ASCE 7 during development of ANSI A58.1-1982, ASCE 7-88 and ASCE 7-95. He directed the 10-year long, NSF funded Cooperative Program on Wind Engineering (with Colorado State University) and the NIST/TTU Cooperative Program of Windstorm Mitigation Initiative, He has devoted the last forty-one years teaching, conducting research, offering short courses and seminars, and consulting for problems relating to wind loads and wind damage.

James Ayers, US Army Research Laboratory
Presentation Title: Materials under Extreme Dynamic Environments: Health
Monitoring and Stress Wave Mitigation
Wednesday, September 19, 2012
4:40 PM – 5:20 PM

Abstract: A brief overview of the structural mechanics and material development conducted at the US Army Research Laboratory will be presented. Specifically, periodic and graded metamaterials can be assembled for extreme anisotropy and phononic band gaps produced from cellular, lattice topology and material composition. The anisotropy and band-gaps can be exploited to alter the path of propagation of high amplitude stress waves. Within open literature and the Department of Defense, much work has been demonstrated for unit cell optimization for harmonic loads. Hence, the presented research is focused on the initial stage of understanding how to tailor periodic lattices for highly concentrated impact and blast loads, which generally produce a broad-band frequency response, and yield only partial band gaps. Specific attention is given to square, hexagonal, reentrant, and modified re-entrant topologies. A fundamental framework for such an analysis is presented and corresponding numerical simulations of selected topologies, under low-velocity and ballistic loading regimes are evaluated. Finally, results from four independent experiments that utilize embedded sensors under extreme loading conditions is provided. A 1D test setup utilizing the well known compression Hopkinson bar is followed by a discussion of the time history and frequency results. Next, projectile-impact experiments are performed on metallic and polycarbonate (PC) using a compressed air gun to compare 2D strain histories of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) Sensors with Digital Image Correlation and resistive strain gages. Finally, blast loading experiments are examined on welded steel plates, where time-history and frequency results from FBG Sensors are analyzed.

Biography: Dr. James Ayers is currently engaged in understanding the warfighter platforms at the US Army Research Laboratory in the Vehicle Technology Directorate. Specific interests lie in developing guided wave damage detection techniques for complex structural geometry that are confirmed by innovative discretization simulation and experimental methods, such as the Spectral Finite Element methods (SFEM), 1D-3D Laser Vibrometry, and digital signal processing methods. A recipient of the SMART Scholarship in 2008, Dr. Ayers has published over 25 international journal and conference papers regarding structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques, ultrasonic guided waves, and is the joint-holder of one US patent. He has participated in projects funded by AFOSR, ONR, and ARO. Prior to coming to ARL, Dr. Ayers received his B.S. and M.S. in Mechanical Engineering from Brigham Young University, with a focus on the hydrodynamic drag testing of IsoTruss lattice structures. He then worked as a structural analyst for a composite airframe company for 2 ½ years, and analyzed the successful design and testing of the composite V-Tail for the UAV Predator B and composite waste and water tanks for the Boeing 787. He returned to academia and completed his Ph.D. in Aerospace Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology.

Symposium 6: Bio-Inspired Materials and Systems

Jeanette Yen, Georgia Institute of Technology
Presentation Title: Creative Interdisciplinary Education through a
Biologically-inspired Design Curriculum
Wednesday, September 19, 2012
9:10 AM – 9:50 AM

Abstract: Biologically inspired design (BID) represents a powerful and logical bridge to multidisciplinary education. Biologists implicitly understand general principles relevant to function and design of biological objects, and have explicit knowledge embodied by a rich set of natural examples of organisms that successfully solve specific challenges. Engineers have explicit knowledge of quantitative assessment of function, and are accustomed to selecting design criteria and designing objects with specific functions. Thus both biologists and engineers face the problem of identifying design criteria, yet each approaches the problem from a unique perspective. Mixing upper level undergraduates majoring in engineering with those majoring in biology, we have devised a BID class that provides increased content knowledge and practical training in methods and techniques. These areas of concentration facilitate the identification and translation of biological principles into solutions for human challenges. Our course also was motivated by a desire to develop teaching practices that address persistent problems in science, technology, math and engineering (STEM) education. Thus-our program utilizes the connection between biological and engineering functions to develop problem solving, critical thinking, and research and inquiry skills in an interdisciplinary setting. This is addressed by fostering the development of, and assessing progress towards five learning goals that are informed by our cognitive science studies of student learning in a BID context: (1) novel techniques for creative design, (2) interdisciplinary communication skills, (3) knowledge about domains outside of their core training, (4) a uniquely interdisciplinary collaborative process, and (5) application of existing technical knowledge to a new discipline. We defined specific student skills for each of these elements that are accessed via cognitive science studies, in situ class observations, and student surveys. Our analysis of student performance in class, as well as our cognitive science studies suggest that our methods increase student design creativity, promote a better understanding of quantitative techniques (particularly among the biologists), facilitates open ended problem solving skills, and allows students to apply their knowledge successfully to domains outside their field by increasing interdisciplinary communication.

Biography: Jeannette is the Director of Georgia Institute of Technology's Center for Biologically Inspired Design. Along with codirectors Marc Weissburg, Craig Tovey, Bert Bras and Ashok Goel, the Center brings together a group of interdisciplinary biologists, engineers and physical scientists who seek to facilitate research and education for innovative products and techniques based on biologically-inspired design solutions. Biologically inspired design can be used to develop new materials, new sensing and locomotory systems, more efficient chemical processes, and more environmentally conscious design and manufacturing systems. This unique method trains scientists and engineers and designers to ask, 'what problems does this biological system solve?' At the Georgia Institute of Technology, the goal of the Center for Biologically Inspired Design is to facilitate, develop infrastructure for, and promote interdisciplinary research and education. The participants of Georgia Institute of Technology's Center for Biologically-Inspired Design believe that science and technology are increasingly hitting the limits of approaches based on traditional disciplines, and Biology may serve as an untapped resource for design methodology, with concept-testing having occurred over millions of years of evolution. Experiencing the benefits of Nature as a source of innovative and inspiring principles encourages us to preserve and protect the natural world rather than simply to harvest its products. Jeannette Yen's Ph.D. is in biological oceanography where she studies how fluid mechanical and chemical cues transported at low Re flow serve as communication channels for aquatic organisms, primarily plankton: the base of aquatic food webs. She is a Professor in the School of Biology and has been at the Georgia Institute of Technology since 2000.

Ian Bond, University of Bristol, UK
Presentation Title: Self-Healing Polymer Composites
Thursday, September 20, 2012
10:50 AM – 11:30 AM

Abstract: Self-healing is receiving an increasing amount of interest worldwide as a method to address damage in materials. In particular, for advanced fibre reinforced polymer composite materials it offers an alternative to applying conservative damage tolerant design and potentially could remove the need to perform temporary repairs to damaged structures. The concept of an autonomic self-healing composite material, where initiation of repair is integral to the material, is now being considered for many engineering applications. This bio-inspired concept offers the designer an ability to incorporate secondary functional materials capable of counteracting service degradation while still achieving the primary, usually structural, requirement. Most materials found in nature are themselves self-healing composite materials. This presentation will consider self-healing technologies currently being developed for fibre reinforced polymeric composite materials, most of which take a bioinspired approach. Current work at Bristol to develop self-healing fibre reinforced composites will be discussed, highlighting the different approaches taken and the various challenges faced. A key element is the on demand supply of a healing agent which can effect repair to a damage site which meets the practical requirements of high performance engineering. Finally, the potential to further develop the self-healing concept to provide regenerative capabilities within an engineering material will also be considered.

Biography: Professor Ian Bond is currently the Head of the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Bristol, UK. He gained his PhD in 1995 and has published more than 100 peerreviewed papers, given over 30 keynote, plenary or invited lectures, and has graduated 18 PhD and MSc students. His research interests are to develop, characterize and optimize a variety of innovative and ingenious approaches which provide functionality to fibre reinforced polymer composite materials and take them beyond their structural role. This includes bio-inspired and biomimetic approaches. Functionalities such as self-healing, electromagnetic response, and shape change (morphing) within fibre reinforced composites are currently being developed, alongside research into creating novel hierarchical architectures and improving damage tolerance via innovative means. Professor Bond belongs to the Advanced Composites Centre for Innovation and Science (ACCIS), based in the Department of Aerospace Engineering, which has an internationally leading reputation for composites research and teaching. ACCIS brings together a team of over 100 researchers spanning cutting edge fundamental science through to application, in collaboration with its global industrial partners, and the University of Bristol led UK National Composites Centre. ACCIS has strong international links, with researchers from around the world.


Symposium 7: Energy Harvesting

Brian Mann, Duke University
Presentation Title: Harvesting Energy from Noisy Environments
Thursday, September 20, 2012
9:30 AM – 10:30 AM

Abstract: While the research over the past decade has primarily focused on inertial generators that operate in a linear regime, recent work suggests that designing a harvester to operate in a nonlinear regime can improve the harvester's performance. More specifically, several research groups are now investigating the use of nonlinearities to extend the bandwidth, broaden the frequency spectrum, and/or to facilitate tuning. These efforts take aim at overcoming the limitations associated with the use of a linear oscillator, which can only perform well over a narrow band of frequencies. This talk will consider the performance and robustness of energy harvesters with linear or nonlinear restoring forces, i.e. hardening, softening, and bistable systems. Tuning the nonlinear harvesters to outperform their linear counterpart is an area of primary interest. I will discuss results for harmonic and random excitation.

Biography: Dr. Brian Mann is an endowed Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Duke University. He received his BS degree in 1996 from the University of Missouri prior to accepting a position with McDonnell Douglas Corporation. Three years later, he accepted a position in the automotive industry with DaimlerChrysler and earned a M.S. degree at Washington University in St. Louis. Upon deciding to return for his D.Sc. degree, he was awarded the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship. He completed his D.Sc. degree at Washington University in 2003 and has held faculty positions at the University of Florida, University of Missouri, and Duke University. He has received several prestigious early career awards, such as the NSF CAREER Award from the National Science Foundation, the 2007 SAE Ralph Teetor Educator Award, and the Office of Naval Research Young Investigator Award. His present research interests include innovative applications of nonlinear systems theory, energy harvesting, and investigating the stabilizing/destabilizing influence of time delays in systems.

Einar Halvorsen,Vestfold University College, Horten,
Presentation Title: Mechanically Nonlinear MEMS Electrostatic Energy
Wednesday, September 19, 2011
1:45 PM – 2:25 PM

Abstract: Resonant energy harvesters can be problematic to operate successfully in an environment where the vibrations have a wide band spectrum or a spectrum that can vary substantially over time or between locations. How to deal with this challenge is therefore receiving considerable attention in the energy harvesting community. One technique that has shown some promise is the use of mechanical nonlinearities or other means to modify the stiffness of the proof mass suspension and thereby shape the response of the device. Furthermore, if unwanted parasitic mechanical damping within the device is successfully suppressed, displacement limits can become a performance-limiting factor. The question then arises if one can somehow exploit the internal proof mass impacts on end-stops. This talk gives some fundamental theoretical considerations on when and how one can expect benefits from the use of nonlinear springs or internal impacts on end-stops. Then some recent experimental results on MEMS electrostatic energy harvesters employing either nonlinear beams or internal impacts on transducer structures are presented.

Biography: Einar Halvorsen received the Siv.Ing. (M.Sc.) degree in physical electronics from the Norwegian Institute of Technology (NTH), Trondheim, Norway, in 1991, and the Dr.Ing. (Ph.D.) degree in physics from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway, in 1996. The thesis subjects were hole scattering in Gallium Arsenide (Siv.Ing.) and statistical mechanics of strongly correlated electron systems (Dr.Ing.). During 1995 and 1996 he also worked on ultrasound wave propagation in heterogeneous tissue at the Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, NTNU. He subsequently spent two years as a postdoc with the Department of Physics at the University of Oslo working on the electronic structure of broken gap quantum wells. From 1999 to 2004 he worked on design and modeling of surface acoustic wave devices at Alcatel Space Norway AS and AME Space AS. Since 2004, he has been with the Department of Micro and Nano Systems Technology at Vestfold University College, Horten, Norway. His current research interest is in the theory, design, and modeling of microelectromechanical devices, in particular vibration energy harvesters.


Symposium 8: Structural and Materials Logic

Aaron Lazarus, DARPA
Presentation Title: DARPA's Structural Logic and Material Logic Programs
Thursday, September 20, 2012
9:10 AM – 9:50 AM

Abstract: The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has been closely involved in the development of smart structures and materials. Several programs have been completed in the past, and include the Smart Wing Program, the Morphing Aircraft Structures Program, and the Nastic Materials Program. Much of the agency's effort in the area of smart structures and materials has focused on active systems, which are directly or indirectly actuated by a power source and leverage separate sensors, and control logic. This earlier approach strongly contrasts to the strategy used under the Structural Logic and Materials Logic Programs, which are focused on developing and demonstrating the benefits, and capabilities of passive systems. The concept is to leverage the change in performance associated with a range of novel phenomena and innovative materials and microstructures to effectively act as structural "logic gates". By configuring these "logic gates" in a manner that when the structure is loaded it responds differently and distinctly depending on the force amplitude, rate and/or frequency, a passive adaptability effect is achieved that does not require active sensors or control logic. The Structural Logic Program is investigating innovative element and sub-assembly designs that exhibit both high stiffness and high damping by leveraging the non-linear behavior associated with phenomena like negative stiffness, inertial resonators and targeted energy transfer. The program has already demonstrated that these high stiffness and high damping designs are achievable, and that the elements and sub-assemblies can be configured in a manner to enable passive adaptability. In addition, the Material Logic Program is investigating innovative materials and microstructures to create a class of high stiffness and high damping composites that exceed the performance obtained by conventional materials. Passive adaptability and increasing stiffness and damping response have been demonstrated through hierarchical microstructural configurations, advanced material processing and novel non-linear phenomena. The specific problem the Structural Logic and Material Logic Program desires to address is the relatively poor dynamic performance of modern military structures. While the evolution of advanced materials and design methodologies has dramatically improved the specific stiffness of military structural systems, the corresponding structural loss values are still extremely low. The goal moving forward is to apply the technology to the design of a high-speed naval planing boat, and demonstrate this unique approach to dynamic structural control on a realistic and representative platform.

Biography: Dr. Lazarus joined DARPA in October of 2007 as a program manager for the Strategic Technology Office. At DARPA, Dr. Lazarus has led a number of programs focused on multifunctional structures and advanced energy systems, in particular the structural and material logic programs that seek to enable structural systems for modern military platforms and buildings to adapt to varying loads and simultaneously exhibit both high stiffness and high damping. Dr. Lazarus's primary interests are in ocean hydrodynamics, and advanced material and structural systems. Dr. Lazarus received his Bachelor of Science in Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering from Webb Institute, and his Master of Science in Engineering and Doctorate in Civil Engineering from Johns Hopkins University.



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